Oven Baked Sockeye Salmon with Fennel and Lemon – Low FODMAP, Fructose Friendly, Gluten Free & Paleo

Oven Baked Sockeye Salmon - Low FODMAP, Fructose Friendly, Gluten Free and Paleo

Ev and I had people over a few weeks ago to welcome a couple of friends to Seattle and we decided that it was going to be too hot to have the oven on all day to prepare our usual dinner party staples. What to do, what to do?

Then it hit us.

We’re nearing the end of Sockeye Salmon season here in the Pacific Northwest (*sobs uncontrollably*), so it’s the perfect time to get our Sockeye fix in while we can. In my humble opinion, Sockeye is the best value salmon you can get, at least in Seattle, in terms of taste for the price; and just take a look at the colour of this beauty! You can’t beat wild caught salmon.

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Once your salmon has been filleted, there is very little prep work involved with this dish, making it a quick and easy meal to cook for a lot of wow factor. The beauty of this cooking method is that you don’t have to adjust it much for a smaller fish, especially if the fillets are the same thickness. The skin and the foil help to keep the moisture in – you’ll just need less marinade.

Notes:

  1. Lemons are a low FODMAP fruit.
  2. Fennel leaves are low FODMAP in servings of 1/2 a cup.
  3. Fresh fish will always taste best – a fresh fish shouldn’t smell of much at all. If your fish smells “fishy,” it probably is. We normally buy whole fresh fish, as they are considerably cheaper per pound and you can make stock with the skeleton.

Baked Salmon with Fennel and Lemon

Serves 10.

  • 2.5 kg/5.5 lb whole sockeye salmon
  • 1/4 cup olive oil
  • 2 tbsp. fresh lemon juice (approx. half a lemon)
  • 1 tbsp. ground sea salt
  • 2 tsp. ground black pepper
  • 1.5 tsp. ground cumin
  • 4 lemons, sliced into rounds
  • 6 sprigs of fennel leaves

Clean and fillet the salmon, if it has not already been done – leave the skin on. Rinse and pat dry the salmon, before slicing 4-5 x 1 cm deep slices into the skin. The skin can be a little tough, so this will require a sharp knife.

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Wash and dry the lemons and fennel sprigs. Next, slice 3.5 lemons into rounds and juice the remaining half. While your hands are clean, get a baking tray ready and line it with baking paper, before laying out two rows of lemon slices and fennel sprigs, on which you will later bake the salmon. Reserve 8-10 lemon slices for the garnish.

Briskly combine the olive oil, lemon juice, sea salt, black pepper and cumin together to emulsify the ingredients and then rub the mixture thoroughly all over both sides of the salmon fillets. Lay each fillet skin side UP on the rows of lemon/fennel and cover the tray with foil. Store in the fridge for at least one hour, to let the marinade work its magic.

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Preheat your oven to 180 C/350 F. When ready, place the covered baking tray on the middle shelf and bake for 20 minutes, at which point you will remove the foil and bake for a further 10 minutes. The fish will be perfectly cooked and flake apart, so be careful when you move it to the serving dish!

To serve, lay out a bed of greens on a long plate and carefully transport each fillet to the dish, along with the lemons/fennel, if you wish. The skin will peel off easily, if you don’t like to eat it and the simple marinade really enhances the flavour of the salmon. I could eat this every day.

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Sangria – Low FODMAP/Fructose Friendly for Some

Lower FODMAP Sangria - Not From A Packet Mix

I love red wine, especially a good Pinot Noir but, unfortunately, it doesn’t always love me back. Earlier this year I woke up at about 3 am with a racing heart rate and I freaked out. Heart conditions run in my dad’s side of the family and I’m only 26! Despite my chest feeling like someone was playing the drums in there, I eventually managed to get back to sleep and was still alive in the morning. Phew! A few weeks later, the same thing happened… and then again, a few weeks after that. Only, the third time it happened, I thought back to what I’d been doing beforehand.

It turned out that I wasn’t dying (!) but I had enjoyed two glasses of Merlot the nights before I had woken up with a rapid heart rate. I asked on the very trustworthy Fructose Malabsorption Support Group whether anyone there knew anything and two words were thrown at me: histamines and sulphites.

Histamines are a a biogenic amine that occur to some extent in many foods, in addition to being produced endogenously by mast cells; histamine is degraded by the amine oxidase class of enzymes – if this enzyme activity is reduced, histamine levels can accumulate and allergic-type reactions can occur. Sulphites are a common food preservative, which some people develop a sensitivity to over their lifetimes, the cause of which is unknown. My money is on histamines, as I am yet to have a problem with white wines but red wine apparently contains anywhere from 20-200% more histamine than white wine, whereas white wine usually contains more sulphites than red wine (thanks, Wikipedia). Whichever it is, I do know that I can drink about half a glass of red wine safely, definitely not more than one. Stupid body!

So, this is where sangria comes in. The sangrias I have had in the past were 1:1 red wine and soda water, among other things, so half the amount of whatever it is that makes my body react. Ergo, I can drink twice as much. Yay! It is best to make this at least 4 hours before you plan to serve it, I normally make it in the morning, so the flavours have had time to mingle together and settle down.

Notes:

  1. A traditional sangria originated in Portugal and Spain and contains red wine,  a little brandy, chopped fruit and a sweetener of some sort (honey, castor sugar, orange juice).
    • Brandy is NOT FODMAP friendly, so I replaced it with vodka. Feel free to use brandy if you can.
    • I looked up quite a few different recipes to create this one, and I liked the use of triple sec to enhance the orange flavour. I do not know if it is strictly low FODMAP but there is only a small amount in there. If anyone knows anything different, please let me know.
    • I only used low FODMAP fruits – orange, lemon, lime… if strawberries were cheap, I would probably have diced some and thrown them in, too.
    • I used soda water/club soda to add some fizz and also reduce the histamine content… though the vodka helps to get the alcohol percentage back up a little bit, maybe I should have made this brew a little more potent?! Haha.
    • Dextrose helps to balance out any excess fructose that might occur due to the red wine or triple sec liqueur.
  2. Like white wines, the dryer (less sweet) the red wine, the lower it will be in FODMAPs. Choose a bottle that is nice but not expensive, as I’m sure that some would count that as an offense to the Wine Gods.
  3. If gluten is an issue, make sure you choose gluten free spirits and liqueurs.
  4. As always with the low FODMAP diet, everyone is a little different. If you are just trying out wine or a sangria for the first time, take it easy and just have a small serving.

Low(ish) FODMAP Sangria

Serves 8-10

  • 1 x 750 ml bottle of a red wine that you tolerate.
  • 1/4 cup vodka
  • 1/4 cup triple sec – I’m okay with this but it can be replaced with fresh orange juice if required
  • 1/4 cup castor sugar or 1/3 cup dextrose
  • 1 tbsp. fresh lime juice
  • 2 tbsp. fresh OJ
  • 1/2 orange, washed and thinly sliced
  • 1/2 lemon, washed and thinly sliced
  • 1 x 750 ml bottle of soda water

Pour the vodka, triple sec, fruit juices and dextrose/castor sugar into the jug you plan to serve it in. Thoroughly mix until the dextrose/castor sugar has dissolved and then pour in the entire bottle of red wine, before mixing once more and adding the sliced fruit. Refrigerate for at least four hours, I normally leave it for eight.

Just before you are ready to serve the sangria, pour in the chilled soda water and give it a gentle stir.

Sit back and watch it disappear! I made two batches of sangria for a dinner party a couple of months ago and they were both gone in under an hour and a half, between 14 people.

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Make a Pup Cake for your Furry Friend’s Birthday – Low FODMAP, Gluten Free & Dog Friendly

Pup Cakes - Dog Friendly Birthday Cakes

What do you get the dog who already has everything?

He has more tennis balls than he knows what to do with, plenty of tug-of-war ropes, as well as a few bones buried in the backyard, where Nellie can’t find them… you make him a cake, of course.

You might remember the last birthday cake we made Bailey. They definitely enjoyed it but I wanted to make this year’s cake a little healthier.

These cakes are nutritious, dog-friendly and pretty tasty, too – when you make the “human-friendly” alterations; before that, they are understandably bland, as dogs’ stomachs can be upset by human food and they shouldn’t really have salt or red wine… poor things.

Speaking of “poor things,” Bails is having surgery today to remove a lipoma in his right groin, so maybe I’ll have to make him some get-well-soon pup cakes this weekend. He won’t be able to do his usual off leash walk, so we’ll have to bribe him to stay still, somehow. I’m dreading the next week… a bored Bailey is a force to be reckoned with and they always feel better before they are safe to run and jump again.

Notes:

  1. According to my own research, all the ingredients are dog-friendly.
  2. Carrot and zucchini are low FODMAP.
  3. Celery contains polyols, if they bother you in the amount required, omit them and replace with green leek tips (not dog friendly).
  4. Sweet potato contains mannitol, if you can’t handle 2 tbsp. of mash, swap it out for mashed potatoes or yams.

Pup Cakes

Makes 12.

Cake

  • 800 g lean mince beef
  • 4 rashers of bacon, minced
  • 1 egg
  • 1 cup grated carrot
  • 1 cup grated zucchini
  • 1/2 cup finely sliced celery
  • 3/4 – 1 cup rice flour (or dog friendly flour of your choice)
  • 1/2 cup onion free/fructose friendly chicken stock
  • 1 tbsp. olive oil
  • 2 tbsp. ground chia seeds
  • Optional (if you’re cooking this for yourself) – use garlic infused oil, swap the chicken stock for red wine, and add 1 tbsp. minced fresh thyme, 1 1/2 tsp. kosher salt, 1/2 tsp. ground black pepper, 1 tsp. cayenne pepper, and 1 tsp. dried chili flakes.

Icing

  • 400 g of sweet potato, pureed (tinned or fresh)

Prepare, then saute, the bacon, carrot, celery and zucchini in the olive oil for 15 to 20 minutes, adding in the chicken stock about halfway through, until most of the fluid has cooked out. Remove it from the heat and then let it cool.

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Preheat your oven to 180 C/350 F and grease a 12 hole muffin pan. Once the veggies have cooled, thoroughly mix all the ingredients together and divide the mixture between the muffin pans. Bake for 20 minutes and then let sit for another 20 minutes, before turning them out onto a cooling rack.

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To make the icing, roughly dice and boil 400 g of sweet potato until it’s fork tender – about 15 minutes. Drain the water, then blitz it with your immersion blender until smooth. Spread it on top of all the pup cakes before serving to the lucky dogs (or humans!).

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Poor Bailey, he had to pose for photos before he got to eat his birthday cake last month.

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Going, going… gone. Bailey and Nellie thoroughly enjoyed their cake and had left overs for the next few days, as well. Spoilt rotten!

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Strawberry and Coconut Chia Seed Puddings – FODMAP/Fructose Friendly, Gluten Free, Dairy Free, Paleo & Vegan

Strawberry & Coconut Chia Seed Puddings - FODMAP. Fructose Friendly, Gluten Free, Dairy Free, Vegan

To further my obsession with puddings for breakfast, I combined some of my leftover strawberry sundae sauce with some leftover coconut cream and the dregs of a packet of chia seeds – I just happened to have the perfect amount of everything, lucky! It was delicious but did not make a super healthy breakfast, as there is decent amount of castor sugar in the sundae sauce, seeing as it’s intended for dessert fare.

It was so good, though, that it was worth revisiting, so the next time I made them I just used fresh strawberry puree with a little maple syrup and stevia. Bingo! They became the perfect weekday breakfast, as they’re made ahead of time. Bonus – they are also sweet enough to serve for dessert, if you wish.

Notes:

  1. Coconut cream is low FODMAP in servings of 1/2 cup.
  2. Maple syrup is contains 1:1 fructose and glucose, just make sure it’s pure maple syrup and has no additives.
  3. Pure stevia extract is low FODMAP, different brands of stevia products may or may not be low FODMAP, depending on sweetening additives used, such as polyols.
  4. Strawberries are low FODMAP in servings of 8 medium berries or less.

Strawberry Coconut Chia Seed Puddings

Makes 8 x 120 ml/4 oz. puddings.

  • 400 ml of coconut cream (your choice of full or light)
  • 300 g fresh strawberries, plus a few more for serving
  • 1/2 cup chia seeds
  • 1/8 cup maple syrup, or to taste
  • 5 drops of stevia extract, or to taste

Wash, hull and pat dry the strawberries, then place them in your blender with the coconut cream, maple syrup and stevia. Blend on high for 2 minutes, until smooth – or until there are only very small chunks of strawberry left, if you’d like.

Pour into a mixing bowl and stir through the chia seeds.

Divvy the mixture up between eight 4 oz ramekins, or put it all in a large serving dish, before covering and leaving them in the fridge to set for 2 hours. Top with extra strawberries, if you wish. Dig in!

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Miniature Pavlovas – FODMAP/Fructose Friendly & Gluten Free

Miniature Pavlovas - FODMAP, Fructose Friendly & Gluten Free

Ignore the dietary guidelines that these Pavs suit in the title… these are not  a health food.

I didn’t think it was possible to love a dessert more than I love a good Pav but I found one. I suppose it might not really count, as these are still Pavlovas… but they’re mini, cute and you don’t feel like such a guts after eating one, as I find it easier to have just one of these than to cut a small slice from a big Pav.

Sweet, with a crispy outside and a perfect marshmallowy inside… what more could you want? Whipped cream and fruit on top? Of course you can.

These are perfect for a dinner party or a high tea (I really want to host one of those!), as you can bake them a day ahead and store them (once cooled) in an airtight container in a cool, dark place (aka. the pantry). They will turn a little soft in the fridge (though they still taste amazing) but once the whipped cream has gone on, that’s where they need to be stored.

Notes:

  1. Sucrose (castor sugar) is 1:1 fructose/glucose but if eaten in excess can overwhelm the co-transport method of fructose absorption, so for this reason I would recommend stopping yourself at one mini Pav per day. Which even normal people should do, really.
  2. Normal double cream can be swapped out for lactose free double cream or full fat coconut cream (both of which can be whipped) or lactose free yoghurt.
  3. Two raspberries and 1-2 tbsp. of strawberry sauce would fall within the label of a “single serving” of fruit.

Miniature Pavlovas

Makes approx. 16

  • 4 eggs whites
  • 1 pinch table salt
  • 250 g castor sugar
  • 2 tsp. corn or potato starch
  • 1 tsp. white wine vinegar
  • 1 tsp. vanilla extract
  • 300 ml double cream – lactose free if required
  • Fruit of your choice to top

Pre-heat the oven to 150 C/300 F.

In a cool, airy kitchen (no dishwasher running!) beat together the egg whites and salt on a medium speed for 2 minutes, then a high speed for a further 3 minutes, or until satiny peaks form.

Then add in the sugar (in thirds) and beat on a high speed until stiff peaks form. This is important, as you need the batter to hold its shape or it will just pool once you’ve piped it onto the baking tray.

Finally, add in the potato starch, white wine vinegar and vanilla extract and stir on a slow speed for a minute to combine everything.

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Transfer the mixture to a piping bag (or a large zip lock bag with a 1 cm snip off the corner) and pipe about 1/3 cup batter in a swirl onto the baking tray. As Ev said, they will look like Pavlova dog poo – have a laugh and keep going. I spaced mine evenly and had eight mini Pavs per baking tray.

Bake for 50-60 minutes at 150 C/300 F, swapping the bottom/top trays half way through to ensure equal cooking.

Once they have cooled, top with whipped cream and berries and serve with this strawberry sundae sauce or passion fruit pulp drizzled over the top.

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Mirepoix – FODMAP/Fructose Friendly & Gluten Free

Mire Poix

A traditional mirepoix involves carrots, celery and onion; due to geographic and cultural divides, as well as taste preferences, variations have of course come about over time and often only include one of the original ingredients… which means that I don’t feel terrible at all about nixing the onion and replacing it with leek and chives!

A mirepoix actually forms the base of many sauces, stews and stocks – I’d been making one for ages unintentionally – and you have been, too – before I even knew it had a name. You know the browned vegetables that constitute the beginning of a stock, a pasta sauce, a chili or even the butter chicken sauce recipe on this blog? They are all actually a “mirepoix.” Go figure. I had no clue until a year ago, I just thought it was what you were supposed to do. Which you are. But it has a name. I’ll stop now.

I have adjusted this recipe of Alton Brown’s to be low FODMAP. You can use mirepoix as a pasta sauce on its own, to bake with oysters or top a pizza. Anything goes, really. I love versatility. Thanks to the dry heat used, which intensifies flavours, this simple method adds a real depth of flavour to dishes that require a tomato sauce base.

Notes:

  1. Celery contains enough mannitol to be high FODMAP if you eat an entire stalk, which you wouldn’t be doing here. However, if you are very sensitive, just reduce it or sub in some extra leek or add in celeriac (for texture).
  2. Green leek tips are low FODMAP in half cup servings, so unless you eat the entire batch of mirepoix, you should be fine.
  3. Tomatoes are low FODMAP in half cup servings.
  4. Carrots are low FODMAP in about a quarter cup serving size.
  5. Garlic infused oil is tolerated by many who are sensitive to fructans, even though it seems counter-intuitive. FODMAPs are water soluble, so the garlic sizzling/infusing in oil shouldn’t leach out too many fructans. Simple solution – use a pinch of asafoetida in its place, which is both low FODMAP and gluten free (unless wheat flour is used to cut it).
  6. Red wine is low FODMAP in 150 ml servings. Red wine vinegar is double fermented red wine, so it is also safe.
  7. Balsamic vinegar is low FODMAP in 1 tbsp. servings, which is all there is in the entire recipe.

Mirepoix

Serves 6-8, depending on usage.

  • 2 large tins of whole, peeled tomatoes, separated into toms and liquid
  • 1 cup finely sliced green leek tips
  • 1 cup diced carrot
  • 1 cup diced celery
  • 1/2 cup red wine
  • 1/4 cup minced green chives
  • 1 tbsp. red wine vinegar
  • 1 tbsp. Balsamic vinegar
  • 2 cloves garlic, whole or diced
  • 2 tsp. fresh minced basil
  • 2 tsp. fresh minced oregano
  • 2 tsp. minced capers
  • Salt and pepper to taste

Strain the tinned tomatoes completely – give them a squish to make sure all the juice is out – and reserve the liquid. Prepare all the veggies as required above.

Combine the tomato liquid, red wine, chives, vinegars and herbs in a saucepan and bring to the boil, before lowering heat to a simmer and reducing volume by half. This should take about 20 minutes.

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Meanwhile, preheat grill/broiler of your oven (grill in Australia = broiler in USA) and then simmer the whole garlic cloves over a med-high heat on the stove top, in an oven-safe pan, until fragrant and then discard if you are sensitive (or dice and leave them in if not). I love my cast iron pan; like this sauce, it’s versatile – the most versatile piece of cookware that we own (bake cakes/breads, stove top, grill/broiler safe, arm workout, you name it).

Add in the leek tips, carrot and celery and sweat the veggies until tender. Add in the tomatoes, then put the pan under the grill/broiler (on the top/second shelf) and leave it with the oven door open for 15 to 20 minutes, until the tops have begun to char. This adds flavour and is a good thing, so let it get moderately charred.

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Once the veggies have sufficiently blackened, put them back on the stove, on a medium heat and add in the capers. Saute for a minute and then tip the veggies into the (now reduced) tomato liquid. Use an immersion blender to puree the mixture to the texture you need (i.e. pasta sauce would be chunkier than a pizza sauce), then flavour with salt and pepper before simmering for a further 5 minutes.

You’re done! Unless of course you want to preserve/can it, which I recommend, as you can make big batches and have jars on the ready for when you’re feeling lazy.

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Travel Series – Flying with Fructose Malabsorption

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I’m not a huge fan of flying. I’m not scared of it but I don’t find it enjoyable, either; long hours (15 hours between Melbourne and LAX) in cramped seating, recirculated air, mostly unsuitable foods and the bathrooms, if you can call them that, all add up to me not having a good time. I stress about connections until we make them and about whether our luggage will make it when we do.

We have had enough mishaps with changed departure gates, delayed planes and missing luggage (LAX is a disorganised hellhole) that Ev and I have become very adept at travelling light. The last time we went home to Australia, we got everything we needed for two weeks, including things for other people, in two carry on bags… and by “carry on” I mean the real carry on bags, not the giant suitcases that American based airlines let people take on and try in vain to cram into the overhead compartments, taking up space meant for everyone. Yes, that annoys me. If I’ve been responsible and packed my belongings into a small suitcase intended for overhead bins, perhaps with valuables in there, I am not impressed when I am told it HAS to be checked, because a 3/4 full plane has already run out of overhead storage. But I digress.

Some people truly do enjoy flying but for the rest of us, here’s how I manage eating with FM and dealing with potential symptoms while flying. It’s pretty appropriate timing, because Ev and I are going to spend the next week in Cabo, Mexico! We’ve been waiting for this holiday since we got back from Cabo last summer. As much as I prefer road trips and exploring different towns, not staying in the one place for too long, sometimes it’s nice to just go and veg out somewhere that is completely relaxing and not have to worry (so much) about the food. As I have said previously, for me, Mexico/Mexican food seems to be a safe bet if I eat plainly and avoid tropical fruits.

The other posts in the travel series can be found here.

I’m sure I’ll be posting photos of tropical paradise on my Instagram account, if you’d like to follow along.

Step 1: Plan ahead, Stress less

Most people don’t need to be told that stress can increase their IBS symptoms; I know I don’t. It’s not all in our heads, though. Research also demonstrates that the two coexist (see here and here), as the autonomic nervous system and certain hormones, which are triggered during times of stress, also act upon the gut.

To avoid stress related IBS and ensure as smooth a travel/flight experience as possible, plan ahead. Some things to consider are:

  • Book your flights as early as possible – cheaper flights means more money in your pocket and less concern about finances during your trip. It’s only a small matter but everything helps.
  • Have all your home-affairs in order well before you go, so you’re not panicking about getting emergency cash out for the house/dog-sitter or paying a last minute bill.
  • Pack early. This is something I can’t help but do, as it all adds to my excitement of going on holiday. It also means you won’t be up until 3 am the morning of your 8 am flight to finish packing your bags.
  • Check in online 24 hours before your flight, if you are able. This means that your seat is reserved on the flight, all you need to do is collect your boarding pass and check in your luggage.
  • Call the airline to ask what their menu will be and decide whether it will be safe for you. This is more important for long haul flights, as I’m pretty sure that standard fare on every flight under 3 hours is a bag of pretzels/mixed nuts and a soft drink/water. Actually, mixed nuts and water sounds fine, thanks. I’ll take that. Just make sure they’re unseasoned.
  • Pack some non-perishable FODMAP friendly snacks; more on this later, just make sure you call the airline(s) and ask what you are able to take in carry on and what must be in checked baggage.
  • If you check in at the airport, or when you collect your boarding pass, confirm your meal choice. I normally go for the gluten free meal and pick what I can from it, supplementing with food I’ve brought from home.

Step 2: Make some safe food flash cards

If you don’t speak the language, flash cards listing the ingredients you can and cannot consume in the language spoken by the airline/at the airport will help prevent a lot of confusion, if you decide to brave the food.

In fact, even if you do speak the local language, flash cards might still be a good idea as the idea of fructose malabsorption is still so novel that the apparently random list of ingredients that you cannot consume might overwhelm the staff and create an unwanted fuss.

Make sure the lists are clear and concise as to what you can and absolutely cannot consume.

Step 3: Eat plain before the plane

Each time I fly, I will eat plainly in the preceding week, for a few reasons:

  • I know that additional stress seems to set me off with foods I can normally tolerate, so why push boundaries?
  • I want to give my gut the week to calm down, as some foods cause delayed reactions that can last a few days. This way, if I do happen to react to something at the end of the second-to-last week before flying, I have seven days for it to pass.
  • If I am starting from a better place, in terms of my gut, then a small slip up won’t end up with such severe results as it would if my gut wasn’t terribly happy to begin with.
  • Do you want to have diarrhoea on a plane? Exactly.

Step 4: Pack your own food

This will not always be possible, due to customs regulations and such but if you are able, I highly recommend taking FODMAP friendly snack foods to tide you over during flights and layovers while you’re away.

Some ideas include:

  • A variety of foods for different meal times – who wants tuna for breakfast?
  • Non-perishable foods (or at least foods that will keep for a few days outside the fridge) are best.
  • Easily digestible foods that won’t tax your gut too much.
  • Pack the food in a freezer bag and take what you are allowed to inside your carry on luggage. Some carry on restrictions might prevent this, so put it on your list of questions to ask when you call ahead.

Examples of what I might pack:

  • FODMAP friendly veggies of your choice, such as carrot sticks, celery (if you can tolerate polyols), cucumber etc.
  • FODMAP friendly fruits, to a lesser extent, such as bananas and berries. These will need to be kept in a hard case, as they’ll bruise easily while travelling, so I generally wouldn’t bring them on a flight as they’re more likely to get squashed than on a road trip.
  • Muesli bars, like my strawberry pepita or fruit free bars. pictured below. Muffins are delicious but I find that they squash too easily.
  • Pre-packaged snacks, such as corn chips or rice cakes.

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Step 5: Be prepared for the worst

Sometimes, despite our best efforts, shit happens. Literally. While it’s not ideal, you can lessen its impact on your travel by planning for it. If you have an FM-ergency kit, your life will be a lot easier. (See what I did there? You can use it). Keep this in your carry on, you may need it on your flight as well as at your destination.

  • Analgesics to help with cramps – ibuprofen is a known gastric irritant, so I personally don’t use it but if it works for you then don’t stop. I prefer paracetamol (acetaminophen) to help ease cramps, which are not fun to have on a plane.
  • Dextrose/glucose tablets – to help offset any excess fructose that you may accidentally consume, using the co-transport method of absorption.
  • Any supplements that you take, such as a probiotic, digestive enzyme or multivitamin. It’s best not to disrupt your schedule, if possible.
  • Stay hydrated.
  • Wet wipes/baby wipes, in case of an emergency cleaning situation.
  • Any other methods that you know work, such as Buscopan (I’m not saying it does work, it’s just an example). I would advise against using something you haven’t tried before, especially on a plane. It’s best to try those things out at home, beforehand, where you can crawl into a ball and feel sorry for yourself without upsetting the rest of the flight and your holiday.

I hope these guidelines help you fly and travel successfully, as they have me. If you think of anything that I should add, please let me know.