My quest to create fructose friendly crumpets this week was delayed after Evgeny requested that I make him some fresh bread; wheat, seeing as he can eat it. I agreed but I thought why on Earth am I making him bread I can’t eat more than one tiny mouthful of? So I decided to attempt the next phase of my fructose friendly – at least for me – bread at the same time. Why clean the kitchen twice, right?
I used the Virtuous Bread 100% Rye Bread recipe as a starting point and knew that I wanted to substitute half of the flour for a non-rye, non-wheat flour, to achieve a lighter loaf with less fructans in it than full rye. I chose white rice flour, as I wanted this to be easy for anyone to replicate and GF flour blends can be so different that they don’t reliably perform in the same way. By choosing a single type of flour that you could buy, rather than a brand of gluten free flour, I hope I have done this.
As to adding the gluten powder (which I had found a week earlier at the supermarket, with something like this bread in mind), I had to make an educated guess that luckily worked out. I couldn’t find relevant instructions anywhere on adding gluten to gluten free flours, because who would be crazy enough to do that?! Too little gluten and bread will crumble – we’ve all had to deal with structurally inadequate gluten free bread; too much and the bread will be very dense and won’t rise. I knew I had to add more than the general rule of 1 tbsp./2 cups of flour, because half of my flour didn’t have any gluten at all. Luckily my “guesstimate” paid off, because the bread rose well and was moist, not crumbly.
For a fantastically detailed look into bread making, watch this video of Alton Brown’s Good Eats bread episode, Dr. Strangeloaf. While it is talking about wheat bread, I like the science he brings to his baking and I was able to use much of his information to make this bread. One example is the use of cooler water – this lets the yeast ferment the carbohydrates at a much slower rate, giving the gluten present a chance to develop enough to successfully “catch” the gas, which generates more fluff in the bread.
- As I have mentioned before, studies show that rye flour contains more fructans than wheat but evidence suggests that the chains are longer, thus taking longer to ferment. It is generally less of an irritant than wheat to those with FM, although many still cannot tolerate it. I am lucky enough to be able to tolerate a small serving of 100% rye. I suppose I should explicitly say that this won’t be tolerated by everyone but if you want to try it, or know that you are okay with rye, then go ahead.
- Rye is not gluten free, so neither is this recipe – especially as I have added vital wheat gluten. If you have issues with gluten specifically, this bread is not for you.
- Rye flour requires more water/hydration than wheat flour, and the dough it will make tends to be stickier and requires less kneading than wheat flour. Rye is easier to over knead than wheat flour, so it requires gentler handling. However, I added wheat gluten to this recipe – while I did knead it less than I did the wheat loaf that I made Evgeny, I kneaded it more than the 100% rye loaf I had previously made.
- Some with FM cannot tolerate brown rice flour, so make sure you use white rice flour if you are one of those. At any rate, I used white rice flour in this bread and I don’t know if brown rice flour would replicate the results.
- The IBS dietitian Patsy Catsos mentions – on her website – that vital wheat gluten isn’t recommended during the elimination/testing phase but after that it could be beneficial in your baking. As long as you’re not gluten intolerant, of course.
- 300 g white rice flour
- 300 g whole meal rye flour – or light rye
- 2 cups/500 ml room temperature water
- 1 cup vital wheat gluten
- 1/3 cup flax seeds – optional
- 3 g dry instant yeast
- 1 tbsp. castor sugar/dextrose
- 3 tsp. salt
- Extra flour to dust surfaces for kneading
- 1 tbsp. corn starch mixed in 1/4 cup water
Combine the white rice flour, rye flour and vital wheat gluten in the bowl of your stand mixer and combine thoroughly with the dough hook for a good minute. Once done, add in the flax seeds, salt and instant yeast and mix for another minute.
Meanwhile, add the sugar to the water and stir until combined. This shouldn’t take long. Once done, add it slowly to the dry ingredients while the dough hook is still turning. You don’t want the dough to be swimming in water but it won’t look like normal wheat dough, either. It will be tacky – i.e. stick to your fingers if you haven’t floured them – but because we have added the gluten, it will have a lot more structure than 100% rye. Use the mixer to knead it for 5 or so minutes on a medium speed.
It is difficult to explain but it should look like the dough ball directly below, minus the flour dusting from me giving it a light knead (1-2 minutes, with my hands) before I left it to rise in a lightly oiled straight sided container – it makes it easier to see how much the dough has risen. Leave your dough (covered with a tea towel) to rise for 2 hours, until it has visibly doubled in size.
Once the dough has doubled in size, use your knuckles to knead it out into a flat rectangle. Hearing the gas bubbles pop is normal, although the wheat dough made more sounds than the ryce dough. Fold each outer third into the middle, like a wallet, and then repeat once more.
Let it sit for 20 minutes and then knead it again with your knuckles. Pick it up and fold the edges underneath; imagine you are creating a jelly fish or the top of a hot air balloon – if you have trouble picturing this in your head, watch the video I linked above. Once done, place it on a lightly floured surface and use your hands to roll it over the bench top without picking it up. I recommend watching the video for this step, too. I also suspect that my hands are a little too small to do this step well but that could also be a lack of skill on my behalf.
Let is rise for another hour, covered with a tea towel, on a lightly floured wooden cutting board. Below is the loaf after its second rise.
Preheat the oven to 200 C/400 F and if you are using any sort of stoneware to bake the bread on, make sure it heats up with the oven or you might end up with a crack through it later on from the rapid temperature change.
Give the dough a light coating with the corn starch/water mixture to help with browning later on. Scoring the top to a depth of about 5-10 mm is not only decorative but functional as well; it gives the inner dough an escape route as it rises during baking, allowing it to expand even more, rather than become trapped inside and thus denser. Scatter a little more flour onto the chopping board, as the corn starch solution will have moistened everything and the dough won’t slide properly for the next step.
Using the wooden chopping board, first make sure the dough can slide around easily on the scattered flour and then slide it onto a pizza stone if you have one, or an upside down, unglazed 12″ terra cotta pot base if you don’t (mine cost $6 from a hardware store) that is sitting in the oven. Allow enough headroom for the dough to rise as it bakes – I need to remove the upper shelf but it isn’t really necessary, anyway.
Bake at 200 C/400 F for 40 minutes. It should be done when it sounds hollow when tapped – some people use internal temperatures but we don’t have a thermometer, so tapping it is for us. Below is the loaf, fresh out of the oven.
Let the bread cool for at least half an hour before cutting into it – don’t worry, it will still be lovely, warm and fresh. It is so delicious! I was really happy with this bread; you get enough rye flavour without the full load of fructans and – as the slices are big – I’ve eaten one slice for each of the last three days and had no issues. I would test more to see my limits but that much of any bread in one sitting isn’t good for anyone.
Hopefully some of you can tolerate it as well, if you’re willing to test it out.
I spread some of my stewed raspberries and rhubarb on it for a delicious breakfast yesterday and had some of my basil pesto on it with sliced turkey for lunch today. What will you do with your freshly baked bread?